Moral development is a gradual process by which children build up appropriate mind-set toward other people within a particular society. Kohlberg proceeded further to modify the work of Piaget within the concept of psychology and moral development. He explains that children can only form their ways of thinking capability by experiences that entirely involve complete comprehension of moral impression like human welfare, justice among others (Shaffer 59).
Moral development is applicable in classrooms where students are required to follow scheduled rules which when not adhered to can lead to appropriate consequences. For children to develop good ethics they should know their needs, one should also know the skills of children at different levels of their development and their areas of interest or skills. The American classroom view and portray Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral development theory by ensuring that a child achieves moral behavior depending on his immediate environment (Shaffer 59).
Religion absolutely should be taught in classroom. This is appropriate since we stay in a multicultural country. When an individual is familiar with other people’s religions, he or she develops positive interactions with others in the society as a whole. On the same note, a lot of care needs to be put in consideration when teaching religion to students since they might have different religious beliefs (Shaffer 109).
Piaget’s Development Theory
The sensor motor Period
This occurs from the day a child is born until it reaches two years. He says that during this period of time, a child’s cognitive coordination is limited to motor reflexes during that stage of birth. At this stage, children learn how to produce their activities to a diverse range of conditions which at the end enable them to have a continuous chain of moral behaviors (Shaffer 209).
This starts from two to seven years of age. At this particular stage, children will try to get hold of representational abilities specifically, in the area of mental descriptions and linguistics, that is to say, development of language. In fact, at this stage children are self-oriented and self-centered.
At this level, they are able to analyze other people’s points of view and analyze it at different angles. This stage occurs between seven to twelve years of age. On the same note, they can also represent alterations as well as still circumstances. Even though they are considered worth to argue, they cannot still solve and carry out concrete problems in order to achieve a positive outcome (Synergist 111).
This does occur between eleven to twelve years of age. At this stage, a child who has achieved formal operation phase is absolutely able to think, argue logically and conceptually. Additionally, they can also argue theoretically, this is the final stage in a child’s development period according to Piaget.
Kohlberg stages of morality development
The first stage of moral development is called obedience and punishment.
On this stage, he explains that people’s mutual behavior depends on norms put by the community to be adhered to (Synergist 111). This only happens by being forced to submit by the authority figure, for example, the teacher, parent or any other elderly person. This obedience is accompanied by threat or the usage of penalty. The next stage in this area is accompanied by a view that correct behavior entirely depends on one’s own interest (Synergist 121).
The second level of moral development and reasoning is society based and is called conventional. It generally depends on other people’s approval and attitude. It involves abiding to the law and responding positively to your given duty.
The third level which many adults never reach is the general comprehension of social mutuality and defined interest on the welfare of others. The last stage in this level is called principled conscience. He explains that an individual will only progress if these stages are passed one at a time (Synergist 111).
Shaffer, David R, and Katherine Kipp. Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence. Australia ; Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Thomson, 2007. Print.
Synergist. Washington, D.C.: National Student Volunteer Program, 1971. Print.