Instructions: Answer each of the
questions given below in your own words. Write in complete sentences where
appropriate. A complete answer usually requires one to two sentences per mark,
so a three-mark question would be answered in three to six sentences. This
section is worth a total of 40 marks.
(4 marks) 1. Explain how rhodopsin functions as a
(6 marks) 2. Explain the Miller-Urey experiment.
What are the implications of this
(4 marks) 3. Explain the term RNA world.
(4 marks) 4. What is the relationship between the
surface area and volume of
acell? Explain how the two major
groups of organisms differ in
this respect, and why.
(6 marks) 5. Draw and label a simple line diagram
of a cell membrane. Include the
major types of membrane proteins. On
your diagram, also indicate
how the following pass through the cell
volumes of water
(3 marks) 6. What is a proton-motive force, and how is it achieved in cellular
(4 marks) 7. Most organisms are aerobic. What is
the major advantage of having
an aerobic metabolism? What is a major
problem associated with an
(5 marks) 8. Explain in detail what happens after
an electron absorbs light.
(4 marks) 9. Explain the second law of
thermodynamics and entropy.