Instructions: Please choose FIVE of the following questions* and write a short (1-2 paragraph) response for each. Clearly, indicate which questions you have chosen to answer. For each, be sure to read the entire prompt and answer all parts of the question.
You are free to use the textbook, lecture slides, notes or any other resources that you find useful. However, all ideas should be in your own words. Always cite appropriately, particularly if you are drawing extensively from outside sources.
*Note: You are more than welcome to think through all of these questions as part of your exam preparation. However, please do not submit answers for more than five questions.
1. Provide two examples of studies with non-human animals that have yielded insight into the effects of early life experiences on normal brain development. For each, explain the main results and how these results contribute to our knowledge of human development.
2. Brandon, age 8, is very shy and quiet. Despite his teacher’s best efforts to encourage his participation, he is reluctant to speak in the classroom setting. Brandon has no history of developmental delays or difficulties with language—he is able to effectively verbally communicate at home with his family, but behaves differently while at school. Provide an explanation for Brandon’s behavior from either a psychoanalytic or behavioral approach. Suggest a strategy for remedying his behavior compatible with that approach.
3. Imagine that you are the parent or caregiver for a 5-year-old child who hates taking baths and is uncooperative each night during bathtime. Explain how you could use (A) classical conditioning and (B) operant conditioning to make bathtime less tumultuous.
4. Using the ecological-systems approach, think about the impact of poverty on a child’s cognitive development. Provide an example of influence within each of the following three systems: microsystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.
5. Imagine that you are a researcher interested in the effects of Baby Einstein videos on cognitive development. State the hypothesis that you would like to test and describe the research method you would use. Explain why your methodology is best suited to testing your hypothesis and identify any limitations or confounds that might complicate the interpretation of your results.
6. Explain the claims and assumptions of trait theories of personality. Create your own trait model with